Equipment such as an electronic whiteboard and a reader in Braille drew the attention of the President of the Republic, Dilma Rousseff, during her visit to the product exhibition of the Government Purchasing Management Seminar – the Education Experience in Brasilia. These devices, produced for use in public schools, were presented to her by Education Minister Fernando Haddad.
The electronic board is composed of a pen and a receiver, which, coupled to the Proinfo projector (computer and projector equipment offered by the MEC to states and municipalities), allow the teacher to work the available contents on a hard wall or frame without the need keyboard or computer. The minister highlighted the interactivity with the contents taught, as well as using the tool as a digital framework. The equipment is in the bidding process for purchase in the National Fund for the Development of Education (FNDE).
The president said that a huge effort will be made to get the equipment purchased. “They are essential products for students and teachers and certainly contribute to education,” he said.
Another initiative that drew attention to Dilma was the prototype of a reader in Braille, which will allow visually impaired students to write and at the same time listen to what they write. The tool has a digital camera that captures images from a book or newspaper, for example, and transforms the image into braille text, generating the corresponding audio. The equipment also has a display whereby the teacher can follow the work of the student.
The project is coordinated by FNDE and developed by the Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC) and the Federal Institute of Ceará. The prototype is in the testing phase and should be ready in six months.
During the visit, the president met other products purchased by the Ministry of Education. She got on one of the boats that runs school buses in the North region and on school buses. He saw the new bikes and uniforms, and also the laboratories of the e-Tec program, which offers technical education in the distance.
In the afternoon of Wednesday, 14, the seminar continues with managers and government suppliers. They will participate in five workshops on the quest for efficiency in government spending, internal and external control processes aimed at transparency in procurement of drugs and equipment for university hospitals.
Read also: System used by the MEC is seen as a model for government purchases
Ministry to distribute tablets to high school teachers
Minister Mercadante stressed that the school has to follow the process of evolution of the knowledge society: “It is very important that we build a solid strategy so that the school can prepare this new generation for the use of information technologies” (photo Fabiana Carvalho) The Ministry of Education will invest about R $ 150 million this year to purchase 600 thousand tablets for use by high school teachers of federal, state and municipal public schools. According to Education Minister Aloizio Mercadante, the equipment will be donated to schools and delivered in the second semester.
The goal of the Digital Education – Policy for interactive computers and tablets project, announced by Minister Mercadante on Thursday, 2, is to offer tools and training to teachers and managers of public schools for the intensive use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in the teaching and learning process.
For the minister, the world is moving towards a knowledge society and the school has to follow that process. “It is very important that we build a solid strategy for the school to train, prepare this new generation for the use of information technology,” he said. According to the minister, this is a process and the federal government wants to accelerate, without hiccups. “It is clear that technology is not a goal in itself, nothing replaces the teacher-student relationship.”
The technology, he said, will be so much more effective the greater the pedagogical care and the greater the involvement of teachers in the process. “We are defining that, in education, digital inclusion begins with the teacher.”
The project comprises the interactive computer – equipment developed by the MEC, which brings together projection, computer, microphone, DVD, blackboard and internet access, and tablet. Interactive computers have already been distributed to high schools and in the second half come the tablets. These tablets will be in 7 or 10-inch models, battery life of 6 hours, color, weight under 700 grams, multi-touch screen, camera and microphone for multimedia work, video output, pre-installed contents, among other features.
The computers will be integrated with the electronic boards, composed of pen and receiver. Coupled with the interactive computer (equipment with computer and projector, offered by the MEC to the states and municipalities), will allow the teacher to work the available contents in a hard wall or frame, without the need of keyboard or computer manipulation.
In addition to sending equipment, the MEC offers training courses for teachers. According to Mercadante, more than 300 thousand teachers have already taken the ProInfo course, and now the 600 thousand who teach in high school will have at their disposal a course of 360 hours to work with the new media. The qualification will be made by the ProInfo trainers network, which already works with experts from public universities.
According to the Minister of Education, with the delivery of new information technologies, teachers and public schools will be able to combine these instruments with other media. He cited the Professor’s Portal, which is one of the most consulted spaces by the category and that still can and should be expanded. Today, he said, there are available 15 thousand classes created by educators and approved by an editorial committee of the MEC. Mercadante announced that it will launch edicts and set up a national committee to select and recommend the best classes that will be available to all teachers.
TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION AND THE SCHOOL SITUATION
This work was carried out with the purpose of analyzing the process of technological insertion in the schools, approaching the present starting point and tries to show the reality about the situation of the country in the subject.
The development was divided into three parts so that the reader could identify the key points involved in this question, which are the origins of technology and its didactic advantages in the classroom, the reality of the classroom and the role of teacher and school in the technological process. The research was provided with data that prove the reality of the Brazilian educational system and leads those who read a reflection on the subject, bringing to the table the various faces from the point of view of the theme so that the analysis of the content of the work can be done.
In everyday life, it is becoming increasingly common to adopt terms that are the consequence of a new line of thought that is a direct reflection of globalization and the technologies that came along with this process, the main one being the internet. With the internet everything is connected, all are part of an invisible web that approaches, streamlines, and, finally, came definitively to act primarily as a facilitator of the activities that are performed by people daily, is a place where knowledge and information is obtained with the ease of a click.
The potentialization of the use of the Internet and the use of the most diverse Information and Communication Technologies – ICT have brought about an eminent change in the way society sees the world and a review of social, cultural and economic relations, from an educational point of view this does not was different; The school felt the need to adapt to this new reality, for example: Some years ago it was unthinkable to obtain a higher education diploma without going to university every day, this paradigm was broken with the first courses called the distance from the country , making it possible for those who could not go to a teaching unit to do higher education when it was possible to attend classes online. It is clear that there is a movement for the computerization of schools throughout the national territory, but this process is still slow and has encountered a great number of problems in the incorporation of technological resources in its classes, obstacles that range from the lack of resources the teacher adaptation and lack of structure in schools.
What can be observed is that regardless of social origin, the whole population is connected through the internet, but this does not mean that despite all the advantages, the use of the Internet and ICT in schools will bring an improvement in the learning process. In this way it is necessary to reflect on the role of teachers and school in the process of implementing the technological process.
At first this work briefly raises the evolution process of the word technology and its meaning, makes a history of education in the country and raises some benefits that will be interesting in a school where there is greater access to ICT. In the second moment the current reality of the classrooms of the country is raised, it is shown that in order to implement a technological process in the school, it is not only necessary to solve structural problems that, by the way, are many, but to propose a reform in every educational structure that begins well before the time of classroom instruction, but rather in teacher training, the question of the physical structure of school buildings is also addressed and how this is important in the learning process. Finally, in the third approach, the role of the teacher in this process and the approach of the school are shown and how the two integrate to propose a better educational reality.
The considerations presented in this paper make it possible for the reader to reflect on the need for the school to adapt to the new cycle initiated in the process of globalization and all the consequences generated by it and in view of the facts what must be done to take the necessary initiatives to overcome this new phase in Brazilian education and make a qualitative leap in teaching, because the world has changed and the way to learn from it as well.
THE ORIGIN OF TECHNOLOGY AND ITS ADVANTAGES IN THE CLASSROOM
Evidenciating the etymology of technology is known that: it is a word of Greek origin that comes from the fusion of two terms, ‘techne’ and ‘logos’, the first referring to the technique and the second study; In a free and literal translation there is a simple definition of what technology is the study of technique that has the function of developing capacities that seek to facilitate, evolve and attract the activities performed routinely. Since the word technology came to exist, has had as a synonym some words in which one of the most associated is: advance. The technological advance in education has been one of the topics most approached in recent times, because as knowledge is constantly changing, that is, adapting to the realities incorporated day by day, education must always seek to evolve according to the needs demanded every time. But has this happened the way it should?
Starting from an old mold with roots in the second half of the twentieth century, the Brazilian educational system urgently needs a reform in its pedagogical methods that ally the demand of the student of the XXI century with the advance of the techniques in the application of information received along of the time in the classroom, with technology being one of the tools available with the best return to match requirements that are currently challenging. It is important to emphasize that for technological advancement in education it is not necessary to flood schools and universities with cell phones, tablet’s and etc, but rather to adapt these technologies to the experience in the classroom.
The persistence of primary orality in modern societies is not so much due to the fact that we are still speaking (which is related to secondary orality), but to the way in which representations and ways of being continue to be transmitted independently of the circuits of writing and electronic media. Lévy, 1998, p. 51.
The key point of the question goes beyond the technological means that will be used in the learning process, it is a cooperative production in which teachers and students are collaborators, taking them from predetermined positions where the teacher is only the transmitter and the the transfer of knowledge to a level of plurality of information that will be of great value to both parties.
It is necessary to rethink the question of the size of the space and the time of the school. The classroom must cease to be the place of the portfolios lined up to become a place where the teacher and the students can carry out a diversified work in relation to knowledge. The role of the teacher ceases to be the “deliverer” of information, to be the facilitator of the learning process. The student ceases to be passive, to be the receptacle of information, to be an active learner, builder of his knowledge. Therefore, the emphasis of education is no longer the memorization of the information transmitted by the teacher and becomes the construction of knowledge carried out by the student in a significant way, being the teacher, the facilitator of this process of construction. Valente, 1999, p. 8.
The technological advent in education is inherent in curricular development, resulting in a series of benefits besides increasing the integration between the student and the teacher, it is possible to highlight some: it arouses students’ interest in the search for knowledge and increases the amount of information available to teachers, stimulates the interaction allowing students with communication difficulties to perform tasks that according to the traditional method makes it impossible to perform group activities with effectiveness, for example.
REALITY IN THE CLASSROOM
The greatest confrontation for the insertion of an educational model closer to a more technological reality, beyond the financial constraints imposed by the government, or the lack of structure in the educational institutions, is also the way in which these technologies will be integrated into the system, unite the technical knowledge with teaching didactics.
One of the difficulties for the technological insertion in the classroom is the adaptation of teachers to the use of this new methodology. Since most of them do not have sufficient knowledge of the new approach, they face difficulties in the field of technological tools, and they do not have sufficient security to implement a teaching method based on the use of Information and Communication Technologies – ICT. The root of the problem refers to the period of academic training, since mold passed on in the university halls during undergraduate courses still reveal standards established in the last educational reform in the late 1960s, which established the methods known to date so they are formed in obsolete standards . From the graduation they are sent to the classrooms and, consequently, by the difficulty of adequacy, lack of mastery and lack of instruction on the technological dynamics, and they end, finally, combining the mechanical teaching with a controller classroom model, resulting in a knowledge, singular and linear.
In 1964, a school census was carried out and the results, despite more than 50 years running, have been worrying, with a reality (not to say the same) that is seen today. According to Leite (2013) the results obtained after the research report that the greatest difficulties pointed out by the students to stay in school are: The lack of curricular adequacy, the poor qualification of the teachers, the quality of the equipment needed for regular use in the classrooms classroom or lack of existence, lack of school supplies, distance between the home and the institution, among other aspects.
Of course, the responsibility for the technological insertion in the school does not only depend on the teacher and how it is formed, the school and its managers must prepare the physical space efficiently so that the student-teacher experience is maximized, which unfortunately does not yet is a standard in Brazil; As it was shown in the previous paragraph, the Brazilian educational scenario still can not deliver the minimum necessary to have an effective learning in the smallest possible scale.
The school structure is important because it must give the student the capacity he needs to fulfill his activities, favor the interpersonal relationship, offer possibilities that can grant a dynamic of maximized knowledge acquisition a, that is, the school and its structure must be attractive to students, so they will be encouraged to do what is proposed. If this does not happen, if the structure of the institution does not favor the potential of the student the effect is the opposite of what was quoted. The poorly structured environment becomes in the view of the student a tedious and morbid environment, for the teacher the teaching process becomes a burden because he will not be able to perform the function in which he was dedicated. Knowing that the school is popularly known as the ‘second home’ of students, this house should have enough structure to receive its residents succinctly.
According to Buitoni it is possible to conclude that:
When Mayumi spoke in space, he was not referring only to a room with its four walls. The idea of space also included the way it was occupied. In defending the quality of public equipment, it did not treat the built space as a determinant for the quality of the activities to be carried out there, but understood that the quality of the space could positively or negatively influence these activities. Buitoni. 2009. p. 132
That is, before thinking about the possibility of digitizing the format of classes making them more attractive to students, one must reform an entire system that was already efficient one day, but stopped in time. The first part is investing in human capital, investing in the training of teachers so that they have the ability to advance in teaching methodology. Subsequently it is necessary to invest in the structure of the school so that the living space of students can maximize the gains obtained through the use of technology.
THE ROLE OF THE TEACHER AND THE INSTITUTION IN THE TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS
The teacher has a crucial importance in the process of implementing resources that make possible the use of technology, as it acts as a mediator that understands the difficulties to establish a new demand in the school and acts as an agent of innovation that understands the urgent evolutionary need in the system of current teaching. He will not become an auxiliary member of education, but remains as the main piece in the role of educator in his role of transmitting knowledge in addition to traditional attribution. The teacher will have to play a very important role in helping and enabling students to be included in the digital universe, thus enabling the student to stay in school and prepare the same for life.
It is important that the teacher also understands that the fact that the school is equipped with the most modern resources is not synonymous with improving the quality of teaching. The devices can stimulate the learning process, but this is not a factor in eliminating pedagogical practices.
Even if there is the use of technological tools in education it is important to have the understanding on the part of the teaching involved in the evolutionary process, that these methods must be adapted to the didactic use, that is, inserting the means according to the necessity of the project of education, not the private demands of the students, thus making distraction possible in the classroom.
To implement a project of this magnitude, it is necessary to adapt the institution to the new reality using the mechanisms as auxiliaries in curricular activities, in this way the technology should be used as a specific instrument and with specific objectives in its curricular component, not only an induced practice on a voluntary basis. Thus, in order to effectively contribute to knowledge as an understanding, the domain of technologies must favor meta-cognitive processes that allow a critical analysis of information and, more important, presuppose association (sociability), in the terms proposed by Simmel (1983) that is, egalitarian interaction between unequals around common goals and contents. The school has much to contribute in this process, because it is a privileged space of sociability. MAMEDE-NEVES & DUARTE, 2008, p.777
Access to information does not necessarily mean access to knowledge, it is necessary to adapt the techniques and vision of the magisterium in order to be able to metabolize this content that will be received and convert it into knowledge so that in the last step the teaching receives it effectively.
The teacher must constantly seek his improvement as a professional, always seeking to be aware of the innovations of his time, and to be aware of the changes that are around him, putting himself in a starting point of learning that begins with him and is transmitted to his listeners later in a simplified way, but that does not leave something to be desired in content.
For this to happen, it is also necessary that the teacher is motivated, that he has an interest in seeking exponential growth and that the institution in which he is linked offers the necessary structure that allows him to perform an innovative work, articulating the didactics with the new means. This idea was complemented by Moran (2004), who says that for an efficient educational model the most precious factor is human material, where it is necessary to have well-prepared, professionally and financially motivated professionals, and forcefully as the main factor for the good performance of should be with pedagogical training up-to-date.
In theory, the role of the teacher in the process of implementing new technologies is to enable the continuous development of technology for learning by keeping up-to-date on the sources necessary for the execution of his work, keeping students motivated and instructing them in their use of the tools available to obtain knowledge, in addition to being in harmony with the institution in which it works by seeking and contributing in the structural strengthening of it so as to enable the best possible experience among: teacher, student and school.
After the construction of this article it is considered that the education needs a forceful reform in the whole structure of its chain.
It has been shown that in spite of all available technology currently available to the teaching, the use of these often becomes a complex process because unfortunately the educational system in the Brazilian scenario did not follow the technological advance and today the educational institutions count with a very large gap both in human material and in school structure, which can be considered a social reflection.
The lack of capacity to receive a didactics of teaching commensurate with the twenty-first century begins in the formation of teachers and goes to the mentality of the students, proof of an education system that has not evolved and brings with it characteristics of education from the second half of the century XX, where the focus was the control of the student in the classroom and not the essence of the learning itself. There is also the lack of structure of the schools to receive the equipment, which for the most part does not have the least possibility of receiving conventional classes, who will say to enable the use of technological devices in their classes.
Even though there is a great challenge ahead of the technology in the school, this is a fact, it is a consequence of a process of evolution of the human race, more and more education has tried to advance in this aspect, even with the limitations it is possible to see that there is an effort to insert a new methodology that will recover students’ interest in staying in school, bring teachers the pleasure to teach and transform the society in which it is part.
It is important not to forget that society is composed of people, and that the use of virtual reality can not become a determining factor in the knowledge process, it is necessary to keep the roots of the school that are: plurality of thoughts, interpersonal relationship, and that of the sphere in which it is a part, the tools must be used as an aid to the educational process and not as the main cog in a system where the human being and its essence are still the main focus.
The teacher remains the main mechanism of a machine that should work. His role does not change, which is to teach, but he must understand that: Currently the pedagogue is no longer the only holder of knowledge within the classroom, it is important to implement a collaborative, transformative and dynamic teaching structure in which he becomes an employee in the student learning process. It is essential that the preceptor prepare and adapt to the use of these technologies because it comes from a transition point where the old and the new collide and generate conflicts. It is necessary to understand the tools that will be available before passing them forward so that the transition between the outdated and the modern is subtle, effective and does not cause the opposite of the planned.
The school needs to shape itself in all areas so that it can receive a transformation of this magnitude. The school structure (especially the public one) is the one that draws the most attention in this process, because with an old educational project the buildings that these institutions are installed in the vast majority do not have the capacity to receive the TIC and for that to happen it is necessary to invest , which in Brazil is always a problem.
The path is arduous and the implementation process is long, since it is urgent, since in a comparison with other countries the discrepancy in the educational process is notorious and one of the determining factors is the lack of mastery of ICTs. The teacher and the school must work together to recognize the demand of society and be able to address this need in their classrooms. Technological knowledge is already palpable, requiring that the school adapt to this period of humanity for yesterday, but this will only be possible when the subject education is actually taken seriously causing the main parts of this context to position themselves and make reality what For now it’s still a dream.